The ‘gig economic system’ has taken off in Pakistan in a giant means. However whereas tech start-ups proceed to make information for securing thousands and thousands of {dollars} in funding, the riders — the cogs turning the wheels of those firms’ formidable visions — aren’t seeing the advantages of this progress. As this sector continues to turn into a pivotal a part of the economic system, creating much more job alternatives, how can the riders be protected?

Rubia Nadeem at all times dreamt of studying how one can journey a motorcycle. Her childhood want was lastly granted a few years in the past when her husband taught her how one can journey. Being within the driver’s seat — or fairly rider’s seat — modified her life. She may decide her kids from their colleges and faculties. Run errands. Achieve this many issues that she would beforehand need to depend on her husband to do.

Her husband had been scuffling with tuberculosis and their payments have been piling up. Their children had grown older — their oldest daughter was pursuing a bachelor’s diploma, whereas their different kids have been in grades 12, 10, 5 and 4 — and their bills have been growing.

So, in September final 12 months, Rubia determined issues needed to change. Her capacity to journey a motorcycle and her fearless perspective made her the right candidate to hitch a bike-based journey hailing and parcel supply service. She is now one of many few ladies within the commerce, driving on the streets of Lahore.

Rubia’s has turn into a hit story. The corporate received her a motorcycle. She has gotten media consideration. She has worn a pink shalwar qameez and a masks with a cranium on it, and spoken to an internet publication. And, most significantly, she has been in a position to help her household financially.

The odd jobs that she would beforehand do translated to the meagre pay of 4,000 rupees a month. “Educating jobs would additionally pay about that a lot,” she tells Eos. At this time, Rubia makes about 5 instances that. Driving 4-5 hours a day by way of the streets of Lahore, she is now in a position to earn round 500 rupees every day, after accounting for gas bills and commissions. There have been many journey hailing apps that she may select from. After all, after doing her analysis, she selected the one with the most important payday.

Being a feminine rider comes with further challenges. Rubia tries to work solely throughout the day and typically male prospects cancel their journeys as a result of they don’t wish to sit behind a lady. “There have additionally been cases when a buyer requested to journey the bike himself and I needed to sit behind,” she shares.

Nevertheless, for feminine ride-hailing prospects — who’re a lot fewer in numbers — Rubia’s presence supplies a way of safety and luxury.

This identifies the necessity for increasing cheaper technique of commuting to ladies who usually need to depend on the far more costly car-hailing companies due to cultural or security causes.

Each Careem and Bykea have beforehand introduced programmes, in partnership with Girls on Wheels, to coach feminine riders. The previous even launched an in-app button for ladies prospects to guide a feminine captain. Nevertheless, not a lot appears to have come out of those initiatives, as evidenced by the negligible variety of feminine riders.

Rubia desires to see extra ladies equivalent to herself enter this line of labor. She is aware of there’s a demand for ladies riders. “Khawateen shoppers tau hain [There are women clients],” she says. One lady Rubia dropped even requested her for her quantity to rearrange for a decide and drop. “They might clearly desire ladies riders,” she says.

Rubia’s is the type of success story Pakistani know-how firms would really like you to learn. The type of tales which have helped them produce pitches that includes faces of these they’ve empowered. The type of tales that maintain attracting hundreds to hitch in. However these tales, whereas true, aren’t the complete story.


Over the previous few years, Pakistani tech firms have emerged from the shoddy towers of Karachi’s Sharae Faisal, and have swiftly moved from exporting software program companies to changing into a every day a part of an city citizen’s life. Whether or not you wish to purchase a brand new cellphone, name a cab to commute to work or order meals from a restaurant, there’s a start-up simplifying these duties for you.

Take a look at among the greatest family names working within the nation’s tech area and what do you discover? Is it their search and prediction algorithms that are driving this progress? Removed from it. Their customer support? Most positively not. Then what [or rather who] is behind this progress?

The engine of the Pakistani start-up ecosystem is the rider, outfitted with a motorcycle, a worn out smartphone and an arched again on account of lengthy working hours. These males, and a few ladies equivalent to Rubia, are serving to the nation transfer to the digital economic system.

Nevertheless, regardless of being the true enablers of Pakistan’s transition in the direction of this new economic system, they’re hardly talked about, until some tragedy befalls certainly one of them. Every so often, the story of a rider struggling to make ends meet, or not even having a single second to eat a correct meal between delivering meals to others, goes viral on social media. The social media accounts of the particular app service instantly go into injury management mode — asking for the particular rider’s particulars, feigning shock and ignoring bigger patterns.

The luxury app founders from elite colleges and faculties proceed to provide speeches of their international accents, telling tales of grit at conferences and speak exhibits. However the people who find themselves truly turning that imaginative and prescient into actuality toil journey after journey for, roughly, 100 rupees apiece.

Very like the remainder of the world, Pakistan has been witnessing the rise of the ‘gig economic system’ — the place momentary jobs and indepedent contractors are extra frequent than full-time employees — which began with the success of ride-hailing companies. To be able to make their means into the native market, these platforms began incentivising automotive homeowners to listing themselves on the app, providing take-home pay that went as excessive as 100,000 rupees a month. After which got here bike-hailing, which took this concept to a much wider market.

Just a few years later, the market gamers have elevated and the businesses have opened new financial frontiers by combining a smartphone with a motorcycle. However the incentives and take-home packages have decreased.

Based on a survey by, gig employees are worse off in South Asia than in different components of the world. In Pakistan, gig employees make round 6.64 {dollars} per day (or 1,156 rupees on the relevant trade price as of February 8). Based on the identical survey, 34 % of the riders in Pakistan have a college schooling and 13 % have a postgraduate schooling. Nonetheless, folks proceed to hitch this workforce as a result of it’s higher than the options.

Every so often, the story of a rider struggling to make ends meet, or not even having a single second to eat a correct meal between delivering meals to others, goes viral on social media. The social media accounts of the particular app service instantly go into injury management mode — asking for the particular rider’s particulars, feigning shock and ignoring bigger patterns.


Twenty-six-year-old Zubair Shah* labored at completely different basic shops for shifts that lasted effectively over 12 hours. He would earn between 16,000 and 22,000 rupees a month. When bike-based ride-hailing and supply apps began taking off, Zubair thought it may be time to strive one thing new.

The younger man, who had studied until his intermediate, was greater than conversant in how one can use a smartphone. And he knew the routes of Karachi just like the palm of his hand, as any Karachiite man his age would.

Signing up for the ride-hailing app didn’t scale back Zubair’s working hours, however they’ve elevated his month-to-month take-home earnings, which now stands between roughly 55,000 to 60,000 rupees.

Identical to that, anybody with a smartphone and a motorcycle now has the potential to not solely earn greater than what a contemporary graduate makes within the nation, but in addition select their very own working hours. That is the way forward for work, we’re advised by tech entrepreneurs and buyers alike.

For Muhammad Tauseef*, a former transmission officer at a information channel and now an internet foreign exchange dealer, it’s the flexibility to work at his personal hours that makes him proceed on as a rider for a ride-hailing and supply service. “I don’t rely upon it for earnings,” he says. “It’s simply one thing I flip to at any time when I wish to get out for a journey and loosen up myself.”

This additionally occurs to be a part of the pitch of at the least one ride-hailing app — that about three quarters of their riders are part-timers and have one other full-time job or enterprise. So, for these riders, it is a side-gig, a method for supplemental incomes. However even when that is true, that also leaves a big variety of riders relying solely on their earnings from driving round metropolises throughout Pakistan.


The gig economic system platforms work on a fancy compensation construction, which could be a operate of a number of components, together with the day and time amongst others. Nevertheless, broadly talking, Bykea’s base fare ranges from 30 to 90 rupees, relying on the class, on high of which ready and distance fees are added. However, Foodpanda has customised its charges all the way down to the zonal degree. For instance, pay per supply in Karachi’s Saddar space can fall someplace between a low of simply 10 rupees and a excessive of 45 rupees.

However inside this complexity lies a possibility to outsmart the system, at the least for many who know the way. A hustler by nature, Saad Kapadia, who was a rider, has lengthy been cashing in on the glitches of varied apps.

He shares how, again within the day, many riders and captains of Careem used to activate the ‘Airplane mode’ on their cellphone — which takes the cellphone offline — when they didn’t wish to take a selected journey. Doing so ensured not taking the journey wouldn’t rely in the direction of their cancellations.

Equally, Bykea had a glitch the place, in case of a visit cancellation by the shopper, the app used to get caught till the rider tapped on the pop-up notification. This was generally exploited by riders to create faux journeys and subsequently cancel them. This may earn them some dormant on-line time and assist them full the minimal variety of hours to turn into eligible for incentives. Saad’s deep information and talent to search out bugs received him observed at Bykea, who provided him a full-time job on the start-up, a job he moved on from late final 12 months.

The upper-ups sitting on the headquarters of Pakistani app companies are effectively conscious of the methods through which riders attempt to outsmart the system. However whereas the system might be quickly outsmarted, it can’t be crushed. And in a rustic equivalent to Pakistan, the place individuals are in a continuing shedding battle in opposition to unemployment and rising inflation, gig employees are unlikely to go wherever, even when the system appears to be working in opposition to them.

The rise of supply companies together with ride-hailing companies has given riders some extra choices. However even the elevated work comes with a catch.

Zubair Shah had his share of unhealthy luck on a December night time, when he was passing by Drigh Highway round 2am after finishing a supply order. Two robbers on a motorcycle grabbed his cellphone, resting on the bike’s petrol tank, and sped away. Zubair complained to the corporate and sought compensation for the cell. However he was advised that, since he didn’t have a everlasting licence, he wasn’t eligible for the corporate’s rider insurance coverage.


Whereas ride-hailing was the most typical choice obtainable for anybody seeking to earn by way of a motorcycle, the current progress in fast commerce has supplied one other avenue that many employees desire.

Of late, plenty of start-ups have emerged with the promise of delivering your grocery wants and different cravings in half-hour or much less, by way of their community of darkish shops. This consists of not solely Foodpanda’s Pandamart but in addition Airlift, which has raised an enormous 85 million {dollars} in Sequence B funding, and KraveMart with six million {dollars} of investor cash within the kitty.

In contrast to rides, which may take wherever round 30-40 minutes to finish and span over an extended distance, deliveries take a lot shorter time and permit the rider to remain inside a particular zone. Extra importantly, they normally pay higher too. The place a journey on common could be price 100 to 150 rupees, from which prices should be netted, deliveries have a flat price of round 50 to 60 rupees, with the potential of ideas from prospects as effectively.

This was the important thing motivation for Hammad to join a supply service. Regardless of working full time as a warehouse supervisor, he was unable to satisfy month-to-month bills from one job. So he had initially taken up a aspect gig at a ride-hailing service.

In comparison with different choices equivalent to name centres, which required sitting at an workplace till 2am for a package deal of simply 15,000 rupees, gig economic system platforms gave him the flexibleness to decide on his personal hours. However a 12 months and half again, he switched to a supply service. “In ride-hailing you will get a visit from town centre to close the Freeway, and you would need to burn gas by returning empty,” he says.

“However, deliveries enable me to work in my very own space, Saddar, which I do know off the highest of my head, and may rapidly rush dwelling after the tip of the shift,” he provides.

The prospect of parcel deliveries additionally appeals to rider Rubia, although her causes are extra layered. Along with the normally greater base fare, deliveries would additionally make her really feel safer, as there could be no man sitting behind her. Nevertheless, the corporate she works at has classes with just some riders eligible to make excessive worth parcel deliveries. Rubia’s present standing as a ‘Silver rider’ doesn’t enable her to ship excessive worth parcels till she deposits a 50,000 rupee cheque as safety deposit.

Not everyone seems to be leaping on the probability to make deliveries both. Muhammad Ali*, 47, is likely one of the ‘Platinum riders’ of a bike-hailing app, a standing he has earned after constantly doing over 110 rides every week. “If it have been as much as me, I might [only] do rides,” he tells Eos. “You don’t have to attend for the shoppers or climb up the steps.”

Amid speedy progress in Pakistan’s e-commerce area, which is pushed not solely by the start-ups but in addition growing on-line gross sales of conventional gamers equivalent to textile giants, there’s now an ever-greater demand for riders to satisfy the rising order circulation.

Theoretically, that ought to have put upward pressures in the marketplace charges, however this doesn’t seem like the case, up to now at the least. In truth, one veteran rider says that the pay might be even decrease now.

“Within the early days of ride-hailing apps, firms have been paying good-looking incentives and ensures to make sure a secure provide, which means {that a} rider doing about 10 hours on-line had the potential of constructing 80,000 to 90,000 rupees a month. Now, even when you work for 14 hours every single day, your earnings wouldn’t be greater than 60,000 rupees,” he explains.

These firms search consolation in the truth that, regardless of the emergence of competitors available in the market, there exists sufficient provide to satisfy the demand of all gamers. That’s supported by knowledge from the Pakistan Automotive Producers Affiliation, which exhibits that over 1.85 million model new motorbikes have been bought within the nation in 2021 alone, in comparison with 1.33 million in 2020, when Covid-19 disrupted gross sales. In the meantime, riders have few different employment alternatives to maneuver on to.


Gig platforms have confronted criticism globally for exploiting employees who they classify as unbiased contractors as a substitute of staff, depriving them of labour protections. In the meantime, the businesses argue that their apps merely give folks the liberty to decide on when and whether or not to work, and due to this fact riders can’t be categorised as staff.

This debate reached its peak in California — dwelling to among the greatest gig economic system platforms equivalent to Uber and Doordash — throughout 2020, when a state laws dominated that unbiased contractors needed to be categorized as staff. The ruling acknowledged that, regardless of having the selection to select their very own hours, the riders/drivers couldn’t select the charges for his or her companies and thus must be thought-about staff.

The choice was rapidly challenged in courtroom, which proposed a referendum broadly generally known as Prop 22. What adopted was an intense battle between the well-funded start-ups, who spent tons of of thousands and thousands of {dollars} in advertising and marketing and lobbying, and the federal government in search of to woo voters in the direction of their stance. In the long run, the tech start-ups have been profitable, as 59 % of Californians voted in favour of retaining the unbiased contractor standing of gig employees.

In Pakistan, gig employees proceed to face troublesome working circumstances that contain shifts which run normally upwards of 10 hours every single day, publicity to air pollution and rising avenue crimes, which put their life and possessions in danger. There have been loads of cases of mugging, whereas one notably unlucky boy was shot and wounded final 12 months by an MPA’s guards, reportedly for making the grave mistake of ringing the bell twice.

Zubair Shah had his share of unhealthy luck on a December night time, when he was passing by Drigh Highway round 2am after finishing a supply order. Two robbers on a motorcycle grabbed his cellphone, resting on the bike’s petrol tank, and sped away. Wali complained to the corporate and sought compensation for the cell. However he was advised that, since he didn’t have a everlasting licence, he wasn’t eligible for the corporate’s rider insurance coverage.

Some companies additionally seem to have contradictory insurance policies. On the one hand they declare to supply life insurance coverage, however their service agreements say that riders are accountable for arranging their very own private and vehicular insurance coverage.

And security is only one a part of the story. Driving a motorcycle for 5 to 10 hours a day at a stretch, by way of polluted roads, might be fairly taxing for the human physique. Hammad has felt that distinction. “It’s actually demanding to not solely journey for hours, however to additionally climb a number of staircases many instances over. Your again nearly offers up on the finish of the day,” he says.

Because of the dismal working circumstances and pay — which can be higher than odd jobs, however remains to be no match for rising inflation — gig employees have repeatedly taken to the streets to protest in opposition to the tech platforms, however their cries have fallen on deaf ears.

The job and progress alternatives the gig economic system has created are plain. However regardless of the gig economic system changing into a pivotal a part of Pakistan’s economic system, there isn’t any definitive laws in place to guard the rights of gig employees. An estimated 100,000 are at the moment actively utilizing app-based platforms to generate earnings. They proceed to face unsafe circumstances, wildly fluctuating pay scales and little to no rights, only for desirous to work in a extra decentralised setting.

As the federal government takes discover of the thousands and thousands of {dollars} these start-ups safe in funding, it should additionally take discover of the cogs within the machine, working tirelessly to maintain these companies afloat.

*Title modified to guard privateness.

The author is a contract journalist who stories on tech. He tweets @MutaherKhan

Revealed in Daybreak, EOS, February thirteenth, 2022

Source link


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Scroll to top